In France, the Poles were tasked with breaking through the German defences in the Caen-Falaise region and while Polish soldiers had entered the battle on 8 August, just ten days later in the Chambois region, they closed the ring and surrounded the German 5th Panzer Army.
The enemy then attacked the Polish positions but to no effect and less than a month later the Black Division had entered Belgium, liberating Ypres and Tielt before regaining the city of Ghent. Ten days after that they were in the Netherlands and by 16 October, the city of Breda had been liberated, the Dutch civilians posting notices in their windows saying: "Thank you Poles”.
The battles continued all the way across northern Europe to the strategic German seaport of Wilhelmshaven where on 5 May 1945, the Black Division captured three Nazi cruisers and 18 submarines.
After Germany’s final capitulation on 20 May 1945, the 1st Polish Armoured Division losses numbered 975 men but as the Russians now occupied their homeland, the Poles were unable to return which meant they became spread throughout the other countries of western Europe.
General Maczek took responsibility for another Polish division based in Scotland while the 1st Polish Armoured Division gained a new commander in General Klemens Rudnicki and for two years, they occupied a base in northern Germany. However the Black Division did return to England in June 1947 where it was finally disarmed and demobilised while Maczek himself returned to the city of Breda were he died in 1994, aged 102 years.
*Also see https://liberationroute.com/ and https://liberationroute.com/the-netherlands/pois/t/the-poles-of-driel